Combining emission and absorption spectroscopy at rare earth spectral lines: plasma temperature measurements in ceramic metal halide lamps
Cornelia Ruhrmann, Michael Westermeier, Thomas Höbing, Andre Bergner, Cornelis Denissen, Jos Suijker, Peter Awakowicz, Jürgen Mentel
JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, Volume: 46, Issue: 29, Article Number: 295202, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/46/29/295202, Published: JUL 24 2013
Presently, most high intensity discharge (HID) lamps contain mercury to generate a high pressure buffer gas and thereby an appropriate power input into the arc. Due to its toxicity, the replacement of Hg is of particular interest in recent research on HID lamps. Up to now, the emission coefficient of an atomic Hg double line is widely used to determine the plasma temperature T-pl in HID lamps. T-pl is needed to calculate the total density of atoms and ions of elements inside these lamps. A combination of optical emission and broadband absorption spectroscopy allows us to evaluate T-pl independently of Hg emission lines. The method is required for a determination of T-pl if the Hg line intensity within the investigated lamp is too low, is superimposed by other lines or if environmental-friendly Hg-free lamps are developed.
Within this work, phase-resolved plasma temperatures are determined in front of the electrode of Hg-containing MH lamps by emission spectroscopy at atomic Hg lines. Above all, temperatures are measured by a combination of emission and absorption spectroscopy at atomic rare earth lines, namely Dy and Tm. A comparison of T-pl determined by both methods agree within an error margin of <10%. Total phase-resolved rare earth atom densities are obtained by means of the measured ground state densities and T-pl. The combination of emission and absorption spectroscopy is also applied to the bulk plasma of lamps where the intensity of the Hg emission lines is too low for plasma temperature measurements or Hg is absent. It provides the partial rare earth pressure and by comparison with thermodynamic data cold spot temperatures within the lamps.